Anaesthetics Information

Please read & complete sections A, B, C & D of the
anaesthesia form (green form) you’ll receive at clinic/hospital and sign permission for anaesthesia,
hand this form to the anaestheisiologist please
For more information, visit:
About your operation…
An operation involves many highly specialized people. Apart from the nursing and technical staff, there are a number of specialist physicians who may operate or assist, depending on the nature of the surgical procedure that you are about to undergo.
The Anaesthesiologist…
The Anaesthesiologist is present at each and every surgical procedure in the operating theatre, and he/she is there to manage the life support systems that enable you to undergo the operation.
Quite apart from administering gases such as oxygen, these support systems include equipment that monitor various body functions such as blood pressure, kidney & lung functions.
The anaesthesiologist interprets this information in order to diagnose, regulate and treat appropriately the body’s organ systems, while a personalized, very delicate balance of anaesthetic medication is administered.
In order to manage the various body functions, the anaesthesiologist has a vast knowledge of medication and pain management, internal medicines, physics, as well as knowledge of stress-related responses which the human body might suffer under surgery.
The anaesthesiologist is fully equipped to care for you in the best possible manner.
Different forms of anaesthesia…
There are four types of anaesthesia: Sedation, Local Anaesthesia, Regional Anaesthesia & General Anaesthesia. Your anaesthesiologist will discuss with you the best type of anaesthesia for your specific case.
Sedation: Drugs are given that will make you drowsy and relaxed, but not put you to sleep. Sedation may be used while performing regional anaesthesia.
Local anaesthesia: This method is often used where a small area of the body surface is to be operated.
Regional anaesthesia: Blocking the nerves to a specific area of the body to keep that region pain free. Not everyone is able to have regional anaesthesia. Some people cannot cope with the idea of being awake during surgery. Regional anaesthesia has been developed for the benefit of those patients who may have difficulties in receiving general anaesthesia due to their baseline health or because the surgical procedure they need does not require general anaesthesia.
General anaesthesia: Means the absence of sensation. You will be completely asleep, feel nothing during the operation, and remember nothing about the operation afterwards. You will be lying on the operating table while a mask or intravenous catheter is put into place and a gaseous anaesthesia administered. While unconscious, oxygen will be administered through a flexible tube inserted into your windpipe or “trachea”. General anaesthesia consists of three parts: sleep, absence of pain, and absence of movement. To achieve this, anaesthesiologists may administer anaesthetic gases (inhalation drugs), sedatives or narcotic drugs for pain management and muscle relaxants to paralyse your body during surgery. Various other drugs may be administered to control your body functions such as heartbeat, blood pressure, kidney and liver functions.
When surgery has been completed, the anaesthesiologist will turn the whole process around and may administer different drugs to that effect. In the recovery room, your vital signs will continue to be monitored. There may be an interval of confusion as you regain consciousness.
Many modern surgical techniques are possible thanks to advancements in anaesthesia. However, there are risks involved. Unpredictable reactions to anaesthesia may occur. These may be either allergic reactions or reactions of an idiosyncratic nature, i.e. unpredictable and inexplicable. Certain medical conditions may complicate the administration of anaesthesia, while untreated illnesses may be contributing risk factors. Research has revealed that patients receiving medical treatment for such illnesses run a much lower risk of suffering negative side-effects.
Risk Factors:
  • Degree of complexity: e.g. heightened risk in case of lengthy heart or brain surgery.
  • Age: technical difficulties in the case of the aged and the very young pose greater risk.
  • Weight: obesity puts a patient at greater risk.
  • Dental damage: essential air passage control during anaesthesia may damage teeth and caps.
  • Normal side-effects: pain caused by the surgical procedure, nausea, sore throat and aching muscles. Although these conditions are difficult to avoid, they are relatively easy to treat and are seldom of a serious nature.
To summarize: There is always a risk of complications and discomfort involved in the administering of anaesthesia, but this can be greatly reduced, by making use of well-trained and qualified anaesthesiologists. If your doctor is not a qualified anaesthesiologist, you have the right to demand that one be present.
When you grant permission for a procedure to be performed under anaesthesia, it is accepted that you are familiar with the information provided and the risks involved. Should you have any further questions, please feel free to ask the anaesthesiologist.
Preceding your operation…
In order to have a clear understanding of your needs, information regarding your medical condition will be obtained by your anaesthesiologist either, just before procedure due to change off theatre time, change of firm/anaesthetist due to unexpected circumstances and emergencies, on the day of surgery, the day preceding surgery, or a few days before surgery during your preoperative visit. Because of this, sections A, B, C, & D of the anaesthetic form included in the envelope are to be completed, signed and handed to your anaesthesiologist before surgery commences. It is important to provide your anaesthesiologist with your detailed medical history and drug list. This information, combined with the laboratory data from your tests, is the basis upon which many decisions are made.
Your anaesthesiologist may prescribe a mild sedative before surgery to calm and relax you. It is important that you take them as prescribed.
Do not eat or drink for at least six hours before surgery. This is to prevent possible aspiration of food particles into the lungs during the course of anaesthesia.
Do not drive a vehicle or operate dangerous equipment for at least twenty-four hours after surgery. If you leave the hospital on the day of the operation, see to it that someone else takes you home.
Narkose Inligting
Lees afdelinqs A,B,C,D van narkosevorm (qroen vorm), wat u by opname van kliniek/hospitaal sal ontvang, vul gegewens in en teken goedkeuring vir narkose. Oorhandiq die qroenvorm aan die anestesioloog voor die operasie.
Vir meer inligting, besoek:
Wat jou operasie betref…
Hoogs gespesialiseerde mense is by ‘n operasie betrokke. Benewens die verpleeg- en tegniese personeel sowel as die chirurg wat die operasie uitvoer, mag daar moontlik ook ‘n verskeidenheid ander spesialis artse betrokke wees.
Die anestesioloog…
Die anestesioloog is die een spesialis wat teenwoordig is by elke operasie. Die anestesioloog beheer die ondersteuningstelsel wat dit vir jou moontlik maak om die operasie te ondergaan. Die stelsel gee nie net vir jou suurstof tydens die operasie nie, maar bestaan ook uit ander toerusting waarmee verskeie liggaamsfunksies gemonitor word, soos die bloeddruk, nier- en longfunksies. Die anestesioloog ontleed hierdie inligting sodat diagnoses gemaak kan word om die liggaam se organe te reguleer. Dit geskied terwyl ‘n delikate vermenging van die narkosemiddel, wat vir jou persoonlik uitgewerk is, toegedien word.
Om die verskeie liggaamsfunksies te beheer, moet die anestesioloog ‘n wye kennis hê van medikasie en pynbeheer asook interne geneeskunde, fisika sowel as kennis van stresverwante reaksies wat die liggaam ondergaan tydens ‘n operasie. Die anestesioloog is volledig toegerus om jou op die beste moontlike manier te versorg.
Verskillende vorms van narkose…
Daar is vier soorte narkose: Kalmering, plaaslike verdowing, algehele narkose en streeksverdowing. Jou anestesioloog sal met jou oorleg pleeg vir die soort narkose wat die beste is vir jou besondere geval.
Kalmering: Dit is medisyne wat jou vaak maak en laat ontspan, maar nie laat slaap nie. Hierdie kalmeermiddels word dikwels saam met streeksnarkose gebruik.
Plaaslike verdowing: Hierdie metode word dikwels gebruik wanneer op ‘n klein gedeelte van die liggaam geopereer word.
Streeksverdowing: Dit beteken dat die senuwees na ‘n spesifieke gedeelte van die liggaam geblokkeer word om daardie gedeelte pynvry te hou. Dit is nie almal wat streeksverdowing kan kry nie, want sommige mense kan die blote gedagte om wakker te wees tydens ‘n operasie eenvoudig nie hanteer nie. Streeksverdowing is ontwikkel tot voordeel van pasiente wat weens hul gesondheid nie geskik is vir algehele narkose nie.
Algehele narkose: Die woord anestesie of narkose beteken afwesigheid van gevoel. Jy sal vas aan die slaap wees, niks tydens die operasie voel nie en na die tyd niks daarvan onthou nie. Algehele narkose kan of met ‘n binne-aarse kateter, of met ‘n masker toegedien word of beide.
Algehele narkose bestaan uit slaap, afwesigheid van pyn en liggaamsverslapping. Om dit te bewerkstellig, dien die anestesioloog ‘n verskeidenheid van middels toe soos narkosegasse (middels wat jy inasem), kalmeermiddels of verdowingsmiddels om pyn te beheer, en spierverslappers om die liggaam tydens die operasie te verlam. Verskeie ander middels kan deur middel van ‘n binne-aarse kateter toegedien word om die liggaamswerkinge soos jou hartklop, bloeddruk, nier- en lewerfunksies te beheer.
Na die operasie dien die anestesioloog ander middels toe om die proses om te keer. Van die teater gaan jy na die herstelkamer toe waar hulle voortgaan om jou toestand te monitor. Jy kan dalk ‘n rukkie deurmekaar wees wanneer jy jou bewussyn herwin.
Baie moderne chirurgiese tegnieke word moontlik gemaak deur die vooruitgang in die toediening van narkose. Daar is egter risiko’s aan verbonde. Reaksies op narkose is nie altyd voorspelbaar nie en kan of as gevolg van allergiese reaksies wees, of idiosinkraties van aard, m.a.w. onvoorspelbaar en onverklaarbaar. Sekere mediese toestande mag ook die toediening van narkose bemoeilik, terwyl onbehandelde siektetoestande ook die risiko’s kan verhoog. Navorsing het getoon dat siektetoestande wat behandel word, die pasiënt grootliks vrywaar van nadelige newe-effekte.
  • Kompleksiteit van chirurgiese prosedure: langdurige hart- of breinchirurgie verhoog die risiko.
  • Ouderdom: verhoogde risikofaktor a.g.v. tegniese probleme by bejaardes en baie jong kinders.
  • Gewig: obesiteit verhoog die risiko
  • Skade aan tande: noodsaaklike Iugwegbeheer tydens narkose kan tande en krone beskadig.
  • Algemene newe-effekte: pyn a.g.v. chirurgiese prosedure, naarheid, seer keel en spierpyne. Hierdie newe-effekte is selde ernstig van aard.
Opsommenderwys: Die risiko van komplikasies en ongemak tydens die toediening van narkose is altyd teenwoordig, maar dit kan grootliks beperk word deur gebruikte maak van die dienste van ‘n gekwalifiseerde anestesioloog. Indien u dokter nie ‘n gekwalifiseerde anestesioloog is nie, is dit u goeie reg om op die teenwoordigheid van ‘n gekwalifiseerde anestesioloog aan te dring.
Wanneer u toestemming verleen het om narkose te ondergaan, word aanvaar dat u vertroud is met die inligting voorsien, asook die moontlike risiko’s. Enige verdere probleme moet vooraf met u anestesioloog bespreek word.
Voor jou operasie….
Om ‘n duidelike begrip van jou mediese toestand te kry sal jou anestesioloog jou die dag van die operasie, die dag tevore, of ‘n paar dae vroeër besoek en jou uitvra om inligting oor jou toestand te kry, of net voor prosedure agv teatertyd verandering, verandering van firma aanvanklik bespreek, ook narkotiseur weens moontlike onbeplande noodgevalle/voorvalle. Vir hierdie doel moet afdelings A, B, C & D van die narkosevorm in die koevert volledig ingevul en geteken word. Oorhandig die vorm aan die anestesioloog voor die operasie. Dit is belangrik dat jou anestesioloog jou mediese geskiedenis tot in die fynste besonderhede ken en weet watter medisyne jy gebruik. Die inligting, saam met die inligting oor jou toetse van die laboratorium, vorm die grondslag waarop vele narkotiese besluite geneem word.
Jou anestesioloog kan moontlik ‘n ligte kalmeermiddel voor die operasie voorskryf om jou te laat kalmeer en ontspan.
Moet vir ten minste ses uur voor die operasie niks eet of drink nie. Dit voorkom die moontlike opname van stukkies kos in die longe tydens narkose.
Moet vir ten minste 24 uur na die operasie nie ‘n voertuig bestuur of met gevaarlike toerusting werk nie. Sorg dat iemand anders jou huis toe neem as jy op dieselfde dag van die operasie uit die hospitaal ontslaan word.